The Department of Radiology of the University of the Philippines Manila – Philippine General Hospital is the oldest imaging department in the Philippines. One hundred ten (110) years after its inception, it is one of the country’s premiere centers of radiology and medical imaging, functioning in line with the PGH mandate of service, training, and research.
The UP-PGH Department of Radiology is composed of two unique divisions: the Division of Diagnostic Radiology and the Division of Radiation Oncology. The divisions are further subdivided into sections each focusing on a unique subspecialty. The Division of Diagnostic Radiology is comprised of the Sections of X-ray, Ultrasound, CT-MRI, and Interventional Radiology. The Division of Radiation Oncology consists of the Sections of External Beam Radiation Therapy and Brachytherapy. The Department, along with its component divisions and sections, is committed to delivering excellent, appropriate, and timely diagnostic imaging, radiotherapy, and therapeutic/interventional radiology to the Filipino people, most especially to the marginalized and the underserved. As a Department catering to the needs of the inpatient and outpatient clinical services, the department boasts some of the best medical imaging and therapeutic radiology equipment in the country, including a 1.5-Tesla MRI, multidetector CT scanners, a linear accelerator system, a high dose rate brachytherapy system, ultrasound scanners for diagnostic and interventional procedures, and a state-of-the-art biplane angiography suite capable of 3D-rotational angiography for vascular interventions.
The Department is recognized as one of the leading training institutions in the fields of diagnostic and interventional radiology and radiation oncology. The distinct 4-year residency training programs in Diagnostic Radiology and in Radiation Oncology as well as the various Fellowship training and Observership programs of the Department remain sought after in the country, as they provide the resident or fellow the opportunity to learn from an esteemed consultant body and faculty, most of whom have served/are presently serving as officers or trustees in the Philippine College of Radiology, Philippine Board of Radiology, Philippine Radiation Oncology Society, Philippine Board of Radiation Oncology, CT-MRI Society of the Philippines, Ultrasound Society of the Philippines, Philippine Society of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, as well as the other subspecialty radiological societies. Furthermore, the patient load in the Philippine General Hospital, being the National University Hospital, provides the trainees the cases that are rarely seen in other hospitals in the country. Regular lectures given by trainees and consultants provide opportunities to update and/or refresh learnings in diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy.
The department is involved in a significant amount of teaching in the various Learning Units in the University of the Philippines College of Medicine. Lectures and teaching sessions are also provided by both the consultant staff and the residents staff as part of the Organ Systems Integrated Curriculum. The faculty/consultants, residents, and fellows are also invited to participate and present in multidisciplinary conferences in nearly all of the clinical services, providing avenues to share our expertise in radiology and radiation therapy while learning from inputs and ideas from the clinicians, all in the service of the Filipino people.
Research is also one of the thrusts of the Department. The past few years have seen a leap in the published work emanating from the Radiology department. The staff are also encouraged to submit their research in local and international journals and research fora for the advancement and sharing of radiologic knowledge.
Served by a competent and humane staff that sees itself as part of a multidisciplinary team of health care professionals, and armed with the state-of-the art facilities, the College of Medicine and PGH Department of Radiology shall be the country’s premiere center of Radiology in the field of service, training and research.
In accordance with the College of Medicine and PGH’s commitment to provide Filipinos with an excellent health care delivery system, the Department of Radiology endeavors to:
- Render quality diagnostic and therapeutic services aided by effective collaboration with other health specialties through acquisition and efficient maintenance of state-of-the-art facilities
- Train radiologists and radiologic technologists to become competent and principles practitioners, leaders, educators, and innovators in their respective fields
- Yield researches that may contribute to an enhanced status of health care
The discovery of x-rays by German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen on November 8, 1895 started the field of Radiography, the first medical imaging technology. From radiography (also known as roentgenography), the field of Radiology was born, which, in turn, gave rise to radiologists – physicians who specialize in diagnosing and treating injuries and diseases using medical imaging (radiology) procedures and examinations.
When the UP-Philippine General Hospital first opened its doors to serve the public on the 1st of September 1910, less than 15 years since the discovery of x-rays, the embryo of what is to be the UP-PGH Department of Radiology occupied what was formerly known as Floor 15. This small embryo unit was then known as the “X-ray and Electro-Therapeutic Department”. In 1918, the first chief of the X-ray Unit was appointed, Dr. Ricardo Fernandez. At that time, the Department served myriad functions as defined in the annual report of PGH, including “all roentgen, electrical and other physical-diagnostic works for all patients; teaching medical students and post-graduate students at the College of Medicine and Surgery, pupil nurses and interns.” As early as the 1920s, research has been a priority in the department. Some of the prominent research endeavors by the radiologists then included studies on large thymus glands (Fernandez and Rustia, 1920), bone lesions in yaws and pancreatic head tumors (Fernandez, 1931). Other researches soon followed, particularly in the imaging of schistosomiasis, TB, and infectious diseases as well as treatment response in x-ray therapy. At this time, radiographic procedures were still limited, which included conventional and portable radiography, x-ray therapy, and retrograde pyelography.
In 1937, Dr. Paterno S. Chikiamco took over and presided the gradual transformation of the humble x-ray unit into a full department. A year into his term as the first chairman, the department transferred into what is now the Emergency Room Complex. The department was initially named the Institute of X-ray and Radium Therapy. In 1941, the department’s name was later changed to the Department of X-ray and Physical Therapy. Eventually, the department was renamed to the Department of Radiology and Physical Medicine. At this time, there were three sections in the department, namely: Physical Therapy, Radium, and Diagnostic.
The department weathered the Japanese occupation during the Second World War by being resourceful, practicing judicious use of Japanese x-ray films and chemicals and fluoroscopic studies. After the War, The Department and the radiological sciences further flourished, gradually introducing procedures through the years. In 1952, the roster of special procedures grew to include angiography, splenoportography, tomography, Sweet’s localization of ocular foreign bodies, pelvimetry, and ventriculography. A new section was also added under the auspices of the Department in 1955 – the Section of the Occupational Therapy.
In the 1960s, the Department transferred to the Cancer Institute (CI) building. As the bed capacity of the CI increased, so too did the techniques in x-ray therapy. In 1961, the department acquired the first superficial x-ray therapy unit in the country. In February 1962, the first Cobalt Teletherapy Unit and the first Cesium 137 Teletherapy Unit were installed.
In 1970, the Sections of Occupational Therapy and Physical Therapy separated to become a distinct department – The Department of Rehabilitation Medicine.
After several relocations, in May of 1991, the Department of Radiology finally established its home at the ground floor of the Central Block of the main PGH Building, with Dr. Eduardo V. Nievera as the chairman. In 1993, the Cancer Institute became a separate entity from the Department of Radiology, after being rehabilitated and renamed the Andres Soriano, Jr. Cancer Center during the incumbency of then PGH Director Dr. Felipe A. Estrella.
Since its inception as a fledgling x-ray unit during the early days of PGH, the Department has grown, adapted, and adopted new technologies and equipment in medical imaging, interventional radiology, and radiation oncology. It has expanded its roster of services, most of which are at par with the best in the country, available not only to the wealthy but also to the underserved members of our society.
A. Residency Training Program
The Diagnostic Radiology residency training program follows the approved 4-year residency program of the Philippine College of Radiology (PCR). The training will be focused on the general diagnostic radiology but with adequate exposure to the various subspecialties (Ultrasound, Computed Tomography [CT]/MRI and Interventional Radiology).
The 1st year of the program instills into the trainee the fundamentals of Diagnostic Radiology. The emphasis will be on plain film interpretation, routine contrast fluoroscopic examinations and mammographic evaluation. Residents at this level are expected to understand the physics of radiographic and fluoroscopic equipment. It is an introduction to the use of radiography. They will be constructing initial radiographic reports for which official reading will be given by consultants or senior residents. There will also be introductory rotations to ultrasound and CT-scan. There will be daily interpretation sessions and interactive discussions with radiology consultants. Research work that includes case reports will also be required during this year.
The 2nd year of the program emphasizes further proficiency in plain film and routine contrast fluoroscopic examinations. They will be able to provide official results of these studies for service patients. Further exposure to ultrasound and CT-scan will be done during this year, with an introductory rotation in MRI. The residents will be allowed to perform initial ultrasound scanning at the OPD and Central Block building and construction of provisional reports for cases in CT/MRI. Residents will also have rotations in Interventional Radiology. There will be daily interpretation sessions and interactive discussions with radiology consultants. Research proposals are started during this year.
The 3rd year of the program will include further exposures to CT/MRI as well as Interventional radiology, with emphasis more on proficiency in providing initial reports in the said modalities. Some of the residents will also have an introductory rotation to Radiation Oncology. The residents are expected to be even more proficient in the plain film interpretation and fluoroscopic procedures. They will be able to provide official results of these studies for service patients. There will be daily interpretation sessions and interactive discussions with radiology consultants. Residents will be allowed to take the board examination (PBR I) in Radiologic Anatomy, Physics and Positioning. Initial research studies are expected to be finished by this time and a second research proposal will be expected to be made.
On the 4th year of training, the senior residents are expected to have gained expertise in the interpretation of radiographic and fluoroscopic procedures. They will be able to provide official results of these studies for service patients. They will have further rotations in the CT/MRI, as well as Radiation Oncology. There will be daily interpretation sessions and interactive discussions with radiology consultants. There will also be a rotation in the OB-GYNE department for exposures to obstetrics and gynecologic imaging. Prospective/retrospective research papers will be on topics in the various sub-specialties and should be finished by this time.
The Section of Radiation Oncology is composed of a team of highly-trained cancer specialists, residents-in-training, medical physicists, radiologic technologists, and specialty nurses that cater to the needs of Filipino patients all over the country. With the linear accelerator machine and the high-dose-rate brachytherapy, the Section is able to serve over 1, 000 patients in external beam radiation therapy and over 250 patients in brachytherapy yearly. This involves treatment of a wide range of oncologic sites including the brain, head and neck, breast, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, gynecologic, hematologic, and even some benign tumors. The spectrum of medical care delivered ranges from pre-radiotherapy clinical assessment to CT simulation and radiotherapy planning and until daily treatment and management of toxicities/side-effects.
The Radiation Oncology training program is designed to produce knowledgeable, competent general oncologists with highly-specialized skills in administering radiation therapy to patients with cancer and other allied diseases, when indicated. By the end of the training program the residents are expected to have acquired the knowledge in all special areas outlines in the core curriculum of the Philippine Radiation Oncology Society (PROS). It consists of four years of study of fundamental concepts as well as four years of research work. The residents are expected to handle various patients with the consultant staff supervision; either private or service cases treated with external beam radiotherapy and/or brachytherapy at the Radiotherapy Section. Trainees are also required to have outside rotations in other radiotherapy facilities in order to observe special radiotherapy procedures that are currently unavailable at our institution, such as stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), and arc radiotherapy. In order to build a holistic training program; aside from training in radiotherapy procedures, trainees are also required to rotate in: 1) Diagnostic Radiology modalities for 2 months during their first year of residency, particularly focusing on CT and MRI, 2) Hematology and Medical Oncology for 1 month under the Department of Internal Medicine, and 3) Pathology Oncology for 1 month under the Department of Laboratories (exposure to these modalities may be integrated/supplemented by attending interdepartmental conferences). The program gives considerable weight to teaching by means of conferences, seminars, meeting, and lectures.
B. Fellowship Training Programs
The fellowship training programs are organized to allow the fellows in training to take on an increasing level of responsibility throughout their fellowship reflecting their individual growth, clinical experience, and knowledge. These are training programs which provide close guidance and supervision of the fellows in training by the consultant staff, and which facilitates the trainees’ professional and personal development. Scholarly activities are emphasized, as the fellows in training are expected to engage in research and to assume responsibility for teaching and supervising residents and medical students.
The CT/MRI fellowship training program consists of dedicated rotations to different subspecialty areas including Neurologic, Head and Neck, Abdominal and Musculoskeletal CT Scan and MRI. Included in the program are daily interpretation sessions and interactive discussions with radiology consultants who are CT/MRI credentialed specialists. The fellows are expected to have more thorough understanding of the physics of CT scan and MRI, and to be familiarized with the appropriate CT scan and MRI protocols and safety principles. Fellows should be able to recognize pathologic conditions, provide thorough descriptions in their reports and give accurate diagnoses. Fellows are expected to continuously update themselves through journals and reports. Fellows will be allowed to perform CT-guided procedures such as biopsy and target instillation of medications.
The focus of the fellowship training program in Ultrasound is in the fine-tuning of techniques in the performance and interpretation of ultrasound procedures. They are expected to develop proficiency in specialized studies such as doppler ultrasound, endocavitary ultrasound, such as transrectal and vaginal, and ultrasound of small parts. Fellows perform ultrasound-guided procedures such as biopsies, thoracentesis, paracentesis, and tube insertions.
Vascular and Interventional Radiology
Vascular and Interventional Radiology Fellowship Training Program is structured to focus on the performance of vascular interventional procedures and interpretation of these results. This includes application of all forms of imaging, including fluoroscopy, digital subtraction angiography, computed tomography, ultrasonography, MRI, and other modalities included in the specialty of Radiology. The program also enhances the trainee’s knowledge regarding signs and symptoms of disorders amenable to diagnosis and/or treatment by image-guided percutaneous techniques.
Catherine Jessica S. Mercado-Lazaro, MD
Nonette A. Cupino, MD
Executive Officer and Vice-Chair for Patient Services
Rosanna E. Fragante, MD
Vice Chair for Postgraduate Training
Christine Susean S. Sagpao, MD
Vice Chair for Undergraduate Training and Graduate Programs
Leizl B. Valerio, MD
Vice Chair for Research (Diagnostic Radiology)
Kathleen H. Baldivia, MD
Vice Chair for Research (Radiation Oncology)
Antonio Marlo P. Nievera, MD
Chief, Division of Diagnostic Radiology
Vicente Francisco R. Hizon, MD
Chief, Division of Radiation Oncology
|N A M E||PGH POSITION||CM RANK||UP Email addRESS|
|KATHLEEN H. BALDIVIA||Attending Radiologist||Clinical Associate Professorfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|MA. TERESA JULIETA U. BENEDICTO||Attending Radiologist||Associate Professor email@example.com|
|JOHANNA PATRICIA A. CAÑAL||Attending Radiologist||Professor firstname.lastname@example.org|
|RENATO M. CARLOS||-do -||Clinical Professoremail@example.com|
|JOLLY JASON S. CATIBOG||Medical Specialist III||Clinical Associate Professorfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|LORELEI L. CHAVEZ||Medical Specialist III||Clinical Associate Professoremail@example.com|
|HENRI CARTIER S. CO||Attending Radiologist||Associate Professor firstname.lastname@example.org|
|NONETTE A. CUPINO||- do -||Associate Professor email@example.com|
|ROGELIO I. DE JESUS||- do -||Clinical Associate Professorfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|IMARZEN V. ELEPAÑO||Medical Specialist III||Clinical Associate Professoremail@example.com|
|EDILBERTO JOAQUIN V. FRAGANTE JR.||Medical Specialist III||Clinical Associate Professorfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|ROSANNA E. FRAGANTE||- do -||- do -||email@example.com|
|ROMELITO JOSE G. GALSIM||Medical Specialist III||Clinical Associate Professorfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|VICENTE FRANCISCO R. HIZON||- do -||Associate Professor email@example.com|
|GLEN MARC G. IGNACIO||-do-||Clinical Associate Professorfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|ORLANDO R. IGNACIO||- do -||Clinical Professoremail@example.com|
|CATHERINE JESSICA S. MERCADO-LAZARO||Medical Specialist IV||Clinical Associate Professorfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|JOSELITO R. LEGASPI||Attending Radiologist||Clinical Professoremail@example.com|
|MANUEL MARTIN L. LOPEZ||-do-||Clinical Associate Professorfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|ANTONIO MARLO P. NIEVERA||Medical Specialist III||Clinical Associate Professoremail@example.com|
|JAROLD P. PAUIG||Attending Radiologist||Clinical Associate Professorfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|DANILO R. SACDALAN||-do-||Clinical Associate Professoremail@example.com|
|CHRISTINE SUSEAN S. SAGPAO||-do-||Assistant Professor firstname.lastname@example.org|
|RICCI PILAR S. SUGUI||-do-||Clinical Associate Professoremail@example.com|
|LUZ L. TAMAYO||Medical Specialist III||Clinical Associate Professorfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|LEIZL B. VALERIO||Attending Radiologist||Assistant Professoremail@example.com|
|CESAR VINCENT L. VILLAFUERTE||Attending Radiologist||Clinical Associate Professorfirstname.lastname@example.org|
- Conventional and digital radiography
- Panoramic dental radiograph (Orthopantomogram)
- Fluoroscopy and Dynamic Contrast Studies
- Barium/Contrast Swallow, Esophagogram
- Upper Gastrointestinal Series
- Small Intestinal Series
- Barium/Contrast Enema
- Tube Cholangiogram
- KUB-Intravenous Pyelogram
- Voiding cystourethrogram
- Antegrade nephrostogram (via nephrostomy tube)
- Cystogram and retrograde urethrogram
- Fistulogram and sialogram (in coordination with VIR)
- Image-guided reduction of intussusception
- Mammography and Breast Imaging
- Diagnostic Mammography
- Image-guided (mammography or ultrasound) needle localization of breast lesions
- General neurologic, head and neck, thoracic, abdominopelvic, and musculoskeletal diagnostic CT-MR
- CT Angiography and Venography
- Cerebral, Head and Neck
- CT Coronary Angiography (in coordination with Cardiology service)
- Pediatric Cardiac CT (in coordination with Pediatric Cardiology service)
- CT-guided biopsies and interventions
- Cone-beam dental CT
- General diagnostic ultrasound
- Ultrasound-guided biopsies and interventions, i.e., biopsies, thoracentesis, paracentesis, and tube insertions.
- Doppler ultrasound
- Endocavitary ultrasound
- Ultrasound of small parts, i.e., neck, breast, musculoskeletal, pediatric cranial ultrasound, etc.
- Vascular procedures: diagnostic angiography (cerebral, spinal, thoracic, abdominal, peripheral), coiling and embolization of aneurysms and other vascular malformations, pre-operative embolization of tumors, transhepatic arterial chemoembolization, vascular stenting, sclerotherapy of vascular and lymphatic malformations
- Non-vascular procedures: percutaneous biopsies, paracentesis, thoracentesis, catheter drainage of fluid collections or abscesses, microwave ablation of tumors, percutaneous biliary interventions
- Linear Accelerator: Varian Clinac CX
- CT Simulation: Siemens Emotion 16-Slice CT
- Cobalt-60 Teletherapy Machine: Theratron Phoenix
- High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy: Eckert and Ziegler Saginova
- Low-Dose Rate Brachytherapy
UP-PGH Department of Radiology List of Selected Research Output for Fiscal Year 2019
Cañal, JPA. Radiology as a Medical Career Choice: Factors Affecting the Decision. Poster presentation Annual Convention of the Association of Philippine Medical Colleges – De La Salle Health Sciences Institute, Cavite, 7-8 February 2019
Joaquin AC, Galsim RJ. Non-dysraphic Intradural Spinal Lipomata with Posterior Fossa Extension in a 17-Month Old Male: Manifestations on Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Oral Presentation. Philippine College of Radiology Annual Convention Interesting Case Competition, First Place, Pasay City, 28 February 2019
Santos JA, Cupino NA. Imaging Features of Epigastric Heteropagus Twinning: A Case Report. Oral Presentation. Philippine College of Radiology Annual Convention Interesting Case Competition, Third Place, Pasay City, 28 February 2019
Ylanan, A. A Literature Review on Radiation Therapy for Palliation of Pediatric Brain Tumors. Poster Presentation. 7th Congress of the Pediatric Radiation Oncology Society, Regional, Asia, 19-22 June 2019
Crisostomo BMP. Role of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy in a Subtotally-Resected, WHO Grade I Hemangiopericytoma of the Cerebellum. Poster presentation. Philippine Radiation Oncology Society Midyear Convention 2019, Philippines, 17 August 2019
Crisostomo BMP. Role of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy in a Subtotally-Resected, WHO Grade I Hemangiopericytoma of the Cerebellum. Poster presentation. 4th Federation of Asian Organizations for Radiation Oncology Meeting, Philippines,14-15 November 2019
Cereno REP. Possible role of radiotherapy in the management of orbital solitary fibrous tumors: a case series. Poster presentation. Best of ASCO Asia 2019, Singapore, 5-6 July 2019
Cereno REP. Practice patterns in brachytherapy for cervical cancer in the Philippines: a national survey. Poster presentation. Best of ASCO Asia 2019, Singapore, 05-06 July 2019
Cereno REP. Toxicities and recurrences after co-60 high-dose-rate brachytherapy for cervical cancer in a tertiary hospital in the Philippines. Oral presentation. Philippine Radiation Oncology Society Midyear Convention 2019, Makati, 17 August 2019
Cereno REP. Practice patterns in brachytherapy for cervical cancer in the Philippines: a national survey. Poster presentation. 4th FARO meeting 2019, China, 15 November 2019
Cereno REP. Possible role of radiotherapy in the management of orbital solitary fibrous tumors: a case series. Poster presentation. ESTRO Meets Asia 2019, Singapore, 07 December 2019
Cereno REP. Practice patterns in brachytherapy for cervical cancer in the Philippines: a national survey. Poster presentation. ESTRO Meets Asia 2019, Singapore, 07 December 2019
Cereno REP. Toxicities and recurrences after co-60 high-dose-rate brachytherapy for cervical cancer in a tertiary hospital in the Philippines. Poster presentation. ESTRO Meets Asia 2019, Singapore, 07 December 2019
Ylanan A. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Female Breast: A Case Report. Poster presentation. 3rd Federation of Asian Organizations for Radiation Oncology Meeting, Asia, 06-09 September 2019
Callueng JM. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the right lacrimal gland treated with eye sparing surgery using IMRT. Poster presentation. 3rd Federation of Asian Organizations for Radiation Oncology Meeting, Asia, 06-09 September 2019
Cruz-Lim EM. Should Pregnancy Test be done in Women of Child-Bearing Age prior to Radiation Therapy: A Literature Review. Poster presentation. 3rd Federation of Asian Organizations for Radiation Oncology Meeting, Asia, 06-09 September 2019
Cruz-Lim EM. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy for laryngeal synovial sarcoma: Management of a rare case. Poster presentation. ESTRO Meets Asia 2019, Asia, 07 December 2019
Jamora K. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans of the upper eyelid treated with surface mould high-dose-rate brachytherapy. Poster presentation. Philippine Radiation Oncology Society Midyear Convention 2019, Philippines, 17 August 2019
Jamora K. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans of the upper eyelid treated with surface mould high-dose-rate brachytherapy. Poster presentation. 4th FARO meeting 2019, Asia, 14 November 2019
Jamora K. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans of the upper eyelid treated with surface mould high-dose-rate brachytherapy. Poster presentation. ESTRO Meets Asia 2019, Asia, 05 December 2019 Research Papers
Eusebio-Alpapara K, Sotalbo C, Ciriaco-Tan C. Basal cell nevus syndrome in a 56-year old Filipino female: a case report. J Phil Dermatol Soc. May 2019
Cruz-Lim EM, Adevoso-Canal JP, De Guzman BG, Lahoz ACF, Villaruel AR. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy for laryngeal synovial sarcoma: Management of a rare case. Applied Radiation Oncology. March to June 2019 issue 8(1):45-48
Sacdalan D, Tomacruz, Sandejas, Berba. Behavioural change: a rare presentation of leptospirosis. BMJ. 2019
Ochoco GE, Enriquez C, Urgel RJ, Catibog JS. Multimodality imaging approach in a patient with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. BMJ. 2019
Department of Radiology
1st Floor Left Wing Central Block Building, Taft Avenue, Ermita, Manila 1000, Republic of the Philippines
Telephone: (+632) 8554-8471 / 8554-8400 loc. 3100 / 3107 / 3108
Email Address: email@example.com
|23||Catherine Jessica Lazaro|
|293||Vicente Francisco Hizon|
|539||Sammy Irwin Lim|